1001頁:A013 消防建筑施工:建筑基本常識

發布時間:2019-07-23點擊量:577

 建筑消防基本常識A13

圖片內容

It goes from zero to insanity in 3 seconds.

從零到瘋只要3~

We really need to discuss your driving attitude.

咱們得好好合計一下你這態度。

雙語:

Definitions of Loads

荷載的定義

A load in a building works to destroy the gravity resistance system of the structure.

建筑的荷載和抗重力系統是一對生死冤家。

According to NFPA 5000: Building Construction and Safety Code, loads are forces or other actions that result from the weight of all building materials, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movement, and restrained dimensional changes.

根據《NFPA 5000:建筑施工和安全規范》的定義,所謂荷載就是所有建筑材料,內部人員和其財物的重量,環境的影響,差動和有限形變產生的力或其他作用。

Specific terms are used to describe the various types of loads and the way they are placed on a building.

不同類型的荷載有對應的術語,用以描述荷載如何對建筑產生影響的。

It is important to understand and use these terms correctly.

理解和正確使用這些術語非常重要。

Dictionary definitions are not always identical to the definitions used in the construction field.

字典里的解釋并不一定和現實一致。

In addition, the various terms are not always mutually exclusive. For example, a load may be a live load and an impact load at the same time.

此外,術語之間也不是完全互斥。比如,荷載可以是動荷載,也可以是沖擊荷載。

Stress and Strain

應力和形變

Before we proceed any further, we must first understand the concepts of stress and strain, the result of forces applied to a structural member.

在繼續深入學習之前,我們先得搞清楚應力和形變的概念,這是將力施加在建筑結構上產生的結果。

In the common vernacular, stress and strain are considered synonyms; however, a clear understanding of the technical definitions of these terms is critical for fire fighters.

一般說來,應力和形變意思差不多。不過,把這些術語的專業解釋搞清楚點對于消防員來說總沒壞處。

As we have discussed, an external force that acts on a structure is called a load.

如前所述,作用在結構上的外力被稱為負載。

The internal forces that resist the load are called stress and strain.

抵抗負載的內力就是應力和形變了。

Stress is the force per unit area that produces a deformation.

應力是單位面積上抵抗外力導致的變形的力。

It is usually measured in pounds per square inch (psi), although occasional references to pounds per square foot (psf) are also found.

常規度量單位是磅/平方英寸(psi),偶爾也會看到磅/平方英尺(psf

The unit area measurement is at the discretion of the person making the calculations.

數字的單位是由計算這個數字的人自行選擇的。

Always be careful to note the unit area when examining any calculations.

所以,在檢視任何計算結果時務必注意單位。

KIP, a term meaning 1,000 pounds, is used in engineering calculations where the number would be so large as to be unwieldy.

KIP1000磅(力),在充斥著大數字的工程計算中應用較多。

Strain, in contrast, is the actual percentage of elongation (deformation) that occurs when a material is stressed. It is measured in fractions of an inch of deformation per inch of original length of the material.

與此相反,形變是材料在在承受應力時的延伸率(變形)。體現的是每英寸材料伸長量和原長度的比值。

Compression, Tension, Torsion, and Shear Forces

壓力,張力,扭力,剪力

Generally, four types of forces can be applied to a structural member: compression, tension, torsion, and shear Figure 2-2.

通常,建筑結構承受四種類型的力:壓力、張力、扭力和剪力。圖2-2

In essence, a compressive force is one in which the force squeezes a structural member, such as a concrete column supporting a floor.

本質上,壓力是一種擠壓結構構件的力,比如混凝土橋墩對橋面的支撐。

Tensile forces stretch a member such as a steel cable that is supporting a suspended walkway.

張力拉伸構件,例如支撐懸索橋的鋼纜。

A torsional force is a twisting force such as that created by turning a screwdriver on a screw; it is the result of torque (the measurable turning force applied to a structural member).

扭力來自于扭轉力,比如用螺絲刀擰螺絲;是扭矩(施加在構件上可測量的轉動力)的產物。

Shear forces occur within a building member when opposing forces pull the member in opposite directions and are often the result of wind loads.

當建筑構件承受兩個相反反向的力同時作用時,其內部就會出現剪力,通常由風壓產生。

Figure 2-2 The design of a suspension bridge anticipates three separate forces: compression, torsion, and tension.

2-2 設計懸索橋時要考慮三種力:壓力、扭力和張力。

 

往期內容:

第一章 序言

1001頁:A001 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A002 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A003 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A004 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A005 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A006 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A007 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A008 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A009 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A010 消防建筑施工

第二章 建筑基本常識

1001頁:A011 消防建筑施工:建筑基本常識

1001頁:A012 消防建筑施工:建筑基本常識


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